Select List In Drupal 8

The most installed module in Drupal "Views" is now available as the core modules of Drupal 8. 0 AA compliant and follows best-practice service design. Now I want to add a select/option dropdown box of taxonomy terms, using the taxonomy_get_vocabularies(). Select two or more items or files in a SharePoint list or library. Select multiple individual items in a window or on the desktop. It would be great if I could use the view I've already created and simply add a new display to display that view as a select list and then I could use. For more information on how to do that, please see our article on Adding Links to your Menus in Drupal 8. Select Administer-> Site building-> Views in the Drupal administrator menu, then click Add in the menu at the top of the page. Brightcove is the main sponsor of the project, employing many of the core members and investing thousands of engineering hours every year in video. Whether you're a developer, a Drupal agency, or an Acquia customer, our certifications are the trusted benchmark for validating and promoting your expertise, reducing hiring risk, up-skilling teams, and helping ensure successful project delivery. An engaging and interactive testing experience for today's students, who learn and play in a digital environment. Drupal 8 provides two default contact forms: "Personal contact form" and "Website feedback. Properties: #options: An associative array, where the keys are the values for each option, and the values are the option labels to be shown in the drop-down list. At the bottom of the page, click the Show advanced. If no directory is specified, the current working directory on the remote computer is used. How to use Custom Select query in Drupal 8 June 24, 2017 Some time we need to apply custom query to fetch the record from database in Drupal 8. This is another parameter that could be pretty interesting from a testing and demo perspective. See the latest political cartoons featuring Obama, Clinton, Trump and hot topics from today’s best political cartoonists. All rights reserved. Mobile-first queries are how Skeleton's grid is built and is the preferrable method of organizing CSS. You can import list members or add members manually. , these are the form items that you added in step 6 (Note: selecting shown will only display the action item when the form item is selected - from Example above: Select a time to Register is only displayed if end user selects In Person). org : Download. I finally got around to launching the alpha of my personal website last week using. Move clockwise to the next corner of the selection. content, users etc). site2preview. com/public/mz47/ecb. Panels in Drupal 8 integrates with Page Manager and offers a custom variant type which allows you to select different layouts and manage blocks in the layouts. Some people travel to Ardbeg along the winding road from Port Ellen. If you’ve arrived here for the first time, checkout the Integration Overview to get an overview of the different ways you can integrate with the BrightTALK platform. This method is an O( n ) operation, where n is Count. Writing your own commands is a joy as we leverage Annotated Command. Imports System Imports System. We provide Islandora Digital Repository framework services. Several Drupal 'select' field form examples, where I show how to create an HTML SELECT/OPTIONS field in a Drupal form. some of the best premium Drupal Themes around. A majority of the Drupal core was rewritten from the ground up in this latest version - a radical approach to modernizing the platform on various fronts and easing both development and content management. Try it free. Original title: Using Windows 8. Supporting continuity and open collaboration. Creating a module. Under Select the entry type, click New Contact Group. English Language Arts Standards » History/Social Studies » Grade 6-8 » 4 Print this page. Properties: #options: An associative array, where the keys are the values for each option, and the values are the option labels to be shown in the drop-down list. two GROUPING SETS. Use shift key for multi-select. Unavailable: Your Seats:. The ending unit is the last unit you want to include words from. 1) Default values Take a field (eg image field to make a banner on each node, or a piece of text) en set content default. 12 2018-12-14: GPL, Proprietary: Netty (software) 4. Shows how to match complete lines in a text file rather than just the part of the line that. Drupal 8 is not far off from being released, and you may have heard some chatter about the differences in how you create custom modules. As with any field, you’ll be able to adjust its position relative to other fields, so you can move the Webform to any part of the node. Validate credit card numbers entered on your order form. For both ‘Receive From’ and ‘Send To’, select Predefined, then ‘Launchkey MK2 <25|49|61>, Launchkey InControl’ (Mac OS X) or ‘MIDIIN2 (Launchkey)’ (Windows). The full content is another view, rendered using Ajax. Chandeep Khosa. Questions related to the configuration and security of your sites. org Skip to main content Skip to search. This is a list of notable content management systems that are used to organize and facilitate collaborative content creation. Syntax: ls [remote-directory] [local-file] Parameter(s): remote-directory - Specifies the directory for which you want to see a listing. Creating Ajax Dropdown In Drupal 7 is one of the best and most important share I have seen on the internet so far and I am happy that you have taken the effort for this. If the SELECT statement in which the NATURAL JOIN operation appears has an asterisk (*) in the select list, the asterisk will be expanded to the following list of columns (in this order): All the common columns. column_name; An outer join will combine rows from different tables even if the join condition is not met. 0 at their earliest opportunity. At the bottom of the page, click the Show advanced. Enter Roll Number: MA 1SEM RESULT (REGULAR/PRIVATE) CLICK HERE Search Result. Lets have players. If you are interested in volunteering please head over to the volunteer portal. A maximum of 10,000 items are allowed. Skeleton uses media queries to serve its scalable grid, but also has a list of queries for convenience of styling your site across devices. In this article, we are going to look at building a multistep form in Drupal 8. You should read the manual for this configuration file first here or by typing man sources. Mailing List Status Check and Unsusbscibe: Enter your email address and click 'Get Status'. It will let you know how-to create a 'Contact' entity to add, edit and delete People (Contacts). VSelect features an overlay of the currently used motif. Artisteer is not affiliated with or endorsed by Nicepage or Joomla! Drupal, DotNetNuke, and Blogger. Once you have selected a state you will be presented with a list of cities. We want to hear from businesses and prospective employees to find out more about the scale and nature of the issue. 0 JBoss Seam: 3. Including custom styles If you have a document that uses custom styles as well as, or even instead of, the built-in heading styles, you can include these in the table of contents. USA State List - HTML select/dropdown snippet. To that end I put. You can also buy professional web site design in every major web page category. To that end I put. Manage your articles using Taxonomy in Drupal 8 Jaywant Topno Feb 16, 2016 Taxonomy is one of the features that add lot of advantage to Drupal compared to many other CMSs open source as well as proprietary. It will let you know how-to create a 'Contact' entity to add, edit and delete People (Contacts). Time Zone List - HTML select/dropdown snippet Included in this page is the HTML select/dropdown code snippets to generate a list of time zones. My views: I setup contextual filter has taxonomy term id with depth -1 and it returned content for 0 and -1 levels. Step 1: Select the relevant service category from the Category drop down list, and then select a service from the Service drop down list. Drupal 8 Theming - Part 18 - Taxonomy and Drop Down Menu - Duration: 26:20. Related Resources. Great and impressive article and I will visit the page again for more. A popup window displays the available keys by License ID, Organization, Key, Type and Activation. , —and by giving rules for the use of document elements, such as that a paragraph may appear within a table entry but a table may not appear within a paragraph. VIDEO: Top reasons for youth baseball player injuries. When coupled with a 10X (most common) eyepiece lens, we get total magnifications of 40X (4X times 10X), 100X , 400X and 1000X. How to Pass Multiple Values through an Exposed Filter in Drupal Views. Creating Content Using the Drupal 8 REST API Tutorial | Caxy Using Drupal's Linked Field module to output fields as links in view 7 - How to concatenate all token values of a list in a single field. Some awesome freebies too. SELECT column1, SUM(column2) FROM "list-of-tables" ORDER BY "column-list" [ASC | DESC]; [ ] = optional. Step 1: Create a views. Part 1: Enter List Items. All rights reserved. With Drupal 8, significant changes has been brought for developers: new features and backwards-compatible changes, new APIs, deprecated modules, and more. Choose the relevant version from the Version to install list. After you create Drupal theme, you can export the theme by clicking on the Export option (Drupal icon) from Quick Access Toolbar at the top right of the screen. I was able to create a page and menu block for a taxonomy category and terms by using views in Drupal 8. We assume that you've better understanding of Plugin API & Annotation-based plugins. If you are among them, you've come to the right place — our Drupal developer has written a blog post on the Commerce 2. Red Hat Linux 8. Step 2: Choose an employee from the available list of Employees. Its display value is block by default, and it establishes a block formatting context. A gift from a stranger tucked into a book sets off a chain of random acts of kindness. To earn Drupal 8 certification grand master credentials, you need to pass only the Drupal 8 developer, front-end specialist, and back-end specialist exams (same for Drupal 7). Build Review Worksheets - Select Multiple Units The starting unit is the first unit to allow words to be chosen from. Creating a view in Drupal 8 is similar to the process followed in Drupal 7. Please use the [email protected] reda Wed, 11/11/2015 - 01:59 10 Comments In this post, you will learn how to theme Drupal 8 views by overriding default views templates and use our own markup to build an accordion (based on bootstrap 3 accordion ). Quick and easy-to-use web design generator for Windows with hundreds of design options and export to WordPress, Joomla, Drupal, DotNetNuke and Blogger. This method is an O( n ) operation, where n is Count. Usage and properties are documented on the individual classes, and the two base classes list common properties shared by all. There are several special styling considerations for. Below is a quick before and after screenshot that displays the new menu in the menus list. Please Select A School & Sport To View Available Camps!!!! Please avoid using your. Hypertext Application Language (HAL) is implemented in Drupal 8 and makes exploitation of web service capabilities less painful. Luckily, Drupal makes this relatively easy to do. As you create content nodes in Drupal 8 each node is saved and can be accessed individually. The Drupal 8 token module allows us to achieve our ends by using tokens chained to each other (previously, on Drupal 7, we needed the entity_token module to achieve the same results, module included with the entity module). Its just not widely documented or particularly obvious from the admin UI. Properties: #options: An associative array, where the keys are the values for each option, and the values are the option labels to be shown in the drop-down list. You can search or print your drug list from the options below. Solr needs to be installed and run as its own entity. The example then creates a List of PointF structures, creates a Converter\ delegate (Converter(Of PointF, Point) in Visual Basic) to represent the PointFToPoint method, and passes the delegate to the ConvertAll method. Click Sites and then add these website addresses one at a time to the list: You can only add one address at a time and you must click Add after each one:. Thank you very much. Click the "Save configuration" button to save your changes. A major difference, however, is that Views module has been incorporated into Drupal 8's core. Instead I remain stuck on the same page. How to participate Read Eric Kidd's fantastic XML-RPC HowTo. We use this technique often on Paragraph entities where we need to position, or color using CSS. text) WHEN u. We could have created two image fields and told the client to just fill in one - but that would mean editors would be responsible for cropping the image which. Select the second to last element if it is a list item. That post focused on Drupal 7, but some things have changed in Drupal 8. islandora_document Islandora document solution pack provides a collection and a content model for users’ documents. This example shows how to calculate sum for each group. Navigate to wherever you store your local development sites and run the following: drush dl drupal-8 --select. usesuper AND u. How to Make Raspberry Sorbetto Mimosas (& Mini Mocktails) Shaina Olmanson Easy Braciole Steak Recipe. For brevity, the form will have only two steps in the shape of two completely separate forms. It would be great if I could use the view I've already created and simply add a new display to display that view as a select list and then I could use. Select every third element starting at second if it's a list item. Your client should not automatically switch to use the highest (or lowest) quality video or to any unknown format name. Watch the 2019 NFL Draft LIVE on NFL Network April 25-27, 2019. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Select Cells. Drupal is UTF-8 from back to front: use it. In the corner of your screen, click the Launcher Up arrow. The task in Drupal 8 is founded on the same principles although the implementation differs. If your book is not in the list, you can search for it by title or ISBN. How to create a custom entity in Drupal 8. Available locations YouTube TV is available ;throughout the United States. manufactures a complete line of flux cored and metal cored tubular welding electrode products including: Contact us today at (800) 341-5215 and discover for yourself the many reasons why Select-Arc sets "The Standard of Excellence in Tubular Welding Electrodes!". com - Select Briggs & Stratton 310707-0137-E1 - Briggs & Stratton Vertical Engine Diagrams and order Genuine Briggs & Stratton Engines: 300000-XXXX-XX to 34Z999-XXXX-XX Parts. Teacher professional development and classroom resources across the curriculum. We recommend checking out our compatibility list before purchasing the peripherals you need. You can try searching for bars near a different location. Download TestNav. Enter one or more new values in the Bulk edit properties area. Welcome to the Lionbridge Connector for Drupal 8 TMGMT; Welcome to the Lionbridge Connector Online Help The Place to Find. Notice: Undefined index: HTTP_REFERER in /home/forge/theedmon. I am moving now to from Drupal 7 to Drupal 8. The format_mask parameter is optional. SQL HOME SQL Intro SQL Syntax SQL Select SQL Select Distinct SQL Where SQL And, Or, Not SQL Order By SQL Insert Into SQL Null Values SQL Update SQL Delete SQL Select Top SQL Min and Max SQL Count, Avg, Sum SQL Like SQL Wildcards SQL In SQL Between SQL Aliases SQL Joins SQL Inner Join SQL Left Join SQL Right Join SQL Full Join SQL Self Join SQL. I've never really loved the above approach, and I was wondering if there was a cleaner better approach to giving the user an option to use an existing or add a new value. icon_select_field. Grilled Corn, Mango and Jicama Salad with Honey Vinaigrette. Click "Add element" and you will see a long list of options: "Name" already exists as a predefined field. Team total score is sum of score of all players in the team. Creating radio buttons, checkboxes, and select lists is a little tricky in Webform, since they're all part of the "select" component type. Bills are heard in Standing Committees which meet on a regular basis throughout the year. Contribute to angular-ui/ui-select development by creating an account on GitHub. Solution Overview. Consistently regarded as one of the nation's top libraries for books and manuscripts of the greatest importance, the Lilly Library was established in 1960 to house the extensive private library of the late Josiah K. Ultimate Results. Recently i am working on a new website which needs a webform and one of the field is a selection list contains the node titles of a specific content type. Step 2: Choose an employee from the available list of Employees. These are grouped into several types. org project Link : Multiselect Created : 2017-12-07 Last Update : 2017-12-07 Current Version : 8. me list instead. If you do not require a specific employee, simply select either the Any, Male or Female options. The data that is parsed from a JSON API is in the form of object which needs to be converted into their respective data format as acceptable by the system. Finally, refresh your browser. com and for Linux at xchat. So, let's start to create the table with pager. One of the most frequently asked questions in SQL Server forums is how to format a datetime value or column into a specific date format. On this page we show how to use JavaScript to get a list of selected options in a select-multiple type select box. If applicable, add a subtitle too. Who Uses Drupal? Over 1,000,000 websites run on Drupal. The Brightcove Player is built on video. Select is the data retrieval query that has been done with help of select() of Drupal 8 core class. Quickly and easily develop desktop, mobile, and web applications with Java, JavaScript, HTML5, PHP, C/C++ and more. So, let's start to create the table with pager. The Select by Color tool is designed to select areas of an image based on color similarity. Knowing that I'll need this list of states for other Drupal applications, I decided to put the "states" code in a separate file. Drupal 8 is currently the latest version of Drupal. Today, we will be looking a bit at how we can create a custom filter you can then add to the View in the UI and influence the results based on that. 1 2015-12-23 Apache 2. At the bottom of the page, click the Show advanced. We made many important improvements to Drupal Commerce over the summer, including an improved promotions UI, BOGO offers, and product category conditions in the 2. After get list row from external database, we need to get all object informations, with Node::load not working, Drupal use default database. , these are the form items that you added in step 6 (Note: selecting shown will only display the action item when the form item is selected - from Example above: Select a time to Register is only displayed if end user selects In Person). A2-Broken Authentication. End unpaid trial shifts in Brighton & Hove We’re supporting a local campaign to end the practice of unpaid trial shifts in the city. On this page we show how to use JavaScript to get a list of selected options in a select-multiple type select box. With thousands of modules in the field, it is an arduous task to select a suitable one for your usage. Drupal 8 is still a very new system and many contributed modules are just starting to catch up. Observer covers the top stories and all of the latest trends in lifestyle, arts, business political, and celebrity news around the world. YouTube TV lets you stream must-see shows, movies, local sports, and news on ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, and more. theme_tableselect() takes the data, turns it into a table, adds a checkbox to each row, and adds a 'select all' checkbox to the header. In my list, this goes right next to not being able to translate menus without hacking. Select the current region. The autoconfigure module adds a single instance of org. Drush commands will now be based on the Annotated Command format. Query extender for pager queries. Watch all the latest MTV shows, check out all the biggest and best music videos, and read all the breaking celebrity and entertainment news. If you can't find someone using this method, try going to the person's profile and selecting Block from the menu on their cover photo. Select your country or region to learn about the latest products, view news, and receive support from Apple, all in your preferred language. Or click Search to display all forms. Under the Name column, locate and select JNLP from the list of Extensions. Whether you're updating from Drupal 6 or Drupal 7, or importing data from some other source, you need to know about the migrate system in Drupal 8. There are now more than 2500 pages here, in 8 languages – so if you can’t find what you need from the list below, I recommend the search function on the top right. Per the second link in that paragraph it looks like the commands to update Drupal 8 core with Drush 9 are:. ESLint is the linting tool of choice for Drupal 8 JavaScript. Easy Ordering, Fast Shipping and Great Service!. If you need to support older browsers like Internet Explorer 6-8, Opera 12. Join AMC Stubs A-List™ to see up to 3 movies every week with FREE online reservations and our best benefits. 1 enables Web administrators to create powerful rules to implement URLs that are easier for users to remember and easier for search engines to find. Configure the plugin settings. All plans of insurance are marketed by Dental Select, an insurance agency, and underwritten by ACE American Insurance Company, a member insurer of the Chubb Group of Companies. An open source content management system. Work flexible hours from home, earn competitive compensation and learn from an industry veteran! Work starts ASAP in early September and continues until the end of December, with the possibility of extension for the right person. The App Center is a platform for third-party application providers to upload their Applications to and users to download from. x that these types of fields allow one to choose a view to provide the list. Add things to the list Open a webpage > select the Favorites button > Reading list > Add. And how to add, delete, modify users from terminal. TCC offering help to cash-strapped students with new micro grant program. Drupal (as of version 8. 8 6 K Sewell 288. Drupal Answers is a question and answer site for Drupal developers and administrators. Handy! So let's look at how to tie this all together: That's it. Let user select site theme in Drupal 8? By marcuschristopher on 24 Aug 2019 at 15:40 UTC For a few weeks, I have been developing a site based on Drupal 8 and so far, everything's working fine. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies. I have created a list (Text) type field in content type and make it required, but it is validating server side, not client side (HTML 5 validation). It will be automatically installed during the Drupal 8 core installation. Under Put this Entry, click In The Contacts. x that these types of fields allow one to choose a view to provide the list. I've never really loved the above approach, and I was wondering if there was a cleaner better approach to giving the user an option to use an existing or add a new value. Select boxes don't currently support the 'placeholder' attribute, so here's a workaround that works just as well. There are quite a few ways to update Drupal, for example, you can use SSH or FTP to update manually or automate updates with composer. Need Help? / New User / Camp Registration Login to Your Account. Select the third item if it's a list item. Select multiple individual items in a window or on the desktop. So what if we told you select meds are free at the Publix Pharmacy? Yep, that’s right. Provides a form element for a drop-down menu or scrolling selection box. Select your country or region to learn about the latest products, view news, and receive support from Apple, all in your preferred language. Click the Programs link. Drupal 8 How To - CKEditor Custom Styles Much like everything in Drupal 8, setting up custom CKEditor styles is actually ridiculously easy, once you know how. By default, the People List will open. After get list row from external database, we need to get all object informations, with Node::load not working, Drupal use default database. Unlimited streaming available via Roku, Fire TV, Xbox, PlayStation, Wii and many other devices. Who Uses Drupal? Over 1,000,000 websites run on Drupal. Our message queue ensures that no subscriber receives the same campaign twice, even if they're subscribed to several lists. Select the second to last element if it is a list item. The Drupal 8 version of EntityFieldQuery Even though Drupal 7 core fell short of a proper way of handling its brand new entity system (we currently rely on the great Entity module for that), it. Lets have players. Stations currently open. Demo Image: Custom Select An Option Custom Select An Option. It aims to add a graphical user interface to the installation of characters beyond manual editing of the select. Progress is a Drupal 8 Bootstrap sub theme. It makes a good choice if you’re building something new from scratch, but also when you’re trying to integrate something into an existing application with lots of existing markup. usesysid AS "User ID", CASE WHEN u. Create a Plugin. The European Mathematical Society is a learned society representing mathematicians throughout Europe. load when the first list changes. 2, “JOIN Syntax”). It would be great if I could use the view I've already created and simply add a new display to display that view as a select list and then I could use. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. The examples here all use functions like db_select() and db_query(), which can be called from any Drupal method or function code. An open source content management system. In planning this event, more funds than ever before — 30 percent more, to be exact — were allocated for grants and scholarships. A majority of the Drupal core was rewritten from the ground up in this latest version - a radical approach to modernizing the platform on various fronts and easing both development and content management. Using a graphical program. Use a list template in SharePoint. Free next business day shipping on qualifying orders $45+. Version: 20190731. Some of these are improvements of old concepts, while others are new introduction in Drupal 8. bz - 霆頑、懊・縺薙→縺ェ繧峨 占サ頑、懊♀縺セ縺九 繝翫ン縲・/title> img. The only way to find all these tutorials is to search online. You have the option to select the Export all keys: CSV link above the Product panel to open the product keys list locally in a spreadsheet. Provides a form element for a drop-down menu or scrolling selection box. Drupal provides deep capabilities and endless flexibility on the web. I need a command to list all users in terminal. FLVS (Florida Virtual School) is an accredited, public, e-learning school serving students in grades K-12 online - in Florida and all over the world. In this course you will learn how to use the Views in order to edit the existing lists inside of a Drupal web site and also how to present new lists with your content. Drupal is UTF-8 from back to front: use it. The Neo4j Java Driver Spring Boot starter provides both a Spring Boot autoconfigure and a starter module. Quickly and easily develop desktop, mobile, and web applications with Java, JavaScript, HTML5, PHP, C/C++ and more. I just ran into this Drupal "table list" problem while creating a Drupal module, and after a lot of digging around, I found a formula that lets me display a Drupal table view like this: I haven't added a pager to this table view yet, but if you're interested in how to display a Drupal table view from a Drupal module, read on. If you do not have a FluidReview account, please sign up. It works a lot like the Fuzzy Select tool (“Magic Wand”). Demo Image: Custom Select An Option Custom Select An Option. Plus, you have access to up-to-date coverage information in your drug list, including – details about brands and generics, dosage/strength options, and information about prior authorization of your drug. However, if you are a long-time Drush user, you may still use Drush 8 (8. Subscribers can be placed on a do-not-send list: you can't accidentally send to them again once they unsubscribe. ©2019 Baltimore County Public Schools. Use a SELECT statement or subquery to retrieve data from one or more tables, object tables, views, object views, or materialized views. 듣는선곡표; 번호 방송일 제목 조회; 1588: 2010-05-09: 5월 9일 (일)>> 동네 한 바퀴 (최효종) [7] 4684: 1587: 2010-05-08: 5월 8일 (토)>> 노래 한 소절(페퍼톤스) [2]. Manage your Packt account, where you can update your address, review your purchases, update your subscription and change your email preferences. Appnovation is a full service digital consultancy specializing in the design, development and support of engaging user experiences. These are modules I strongly recommend because I use them on most new builds. Download Free Trial Free Samples Premium Projects. It replaces the HTML form select element with easier to style HTML markup. This statement will select the employee_id, dept, name, age, and salary from the employee_info table where the dept equals 'Sales' and will list the results in Ascending (default) order based on their Salary. 'Insert to page' wizard is added. Feature-rich site which makes trading your collectible cards safe and easy, where you can match your collection with those of hundreds of other collectors and players interested in trading cards with you, and where we will let you know whenever the cards you are looking for are available for trading. Use Acquia Cloud Free, designed for the expert Drupal developer, for 30 days to try out Drupal and our best-in-class developer platform. On this page we show how to use JavaScript to get a list of selected options in a select-multiple type select box. Synology Products Compatibility List. Four Campuses, One University The University of Colorado is a public research university with multiple campuses serving Colorado, the nation and the world through leadership in high-quality education and professional training, public service, advancing research and knowledge, and state-of-the-art health care. com - 莉穂コ九・縺ァ縺阪k莠コ縺ォ縺ェ繧区婿豕・/title> img. Select visible cells in current selection. If no directory is specified, the current working directory on the remote computer is used. An engaging and interactive testing experience for today's students, who learn and play in a digital environment. When the user clicks on one of the teasers, the full content appears as a modal type overlay on top of the grid. In this final chapter, we will. Under Put this Entry, click In The Contacts. 12 2018-12-14: GPL, Proprietary: Netty (software) 4.